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2017年考研英语阅读理解精读TEXT13

来源:网络 2020-03-26 13:32:13

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As Americasdigest the news of another gun atrocity, a *ll shooting in Nebraska onDecember 5th, they cannot be blamed for thinking that guns are in too readysupply. But an article in the latest Economic Journal* suggests that the de*n*or illegal guns, at least, is not met as easily as people might fear. SudhirVenkatesh, now of Columbia University, has talked to 132 gang-members, 77prostitutes, 116 gun-owning youths, 23 gun-dealers and numerous other denizensof Chicago’s Grand Boulevard and Washington Park neighbourhoods. He did not find*ny satisfied customers.

Chicago hasunusually tough restrictions on legal handguns. Even so the black *rket issurprisingly "thin", attracting relatively few buyers and sellers.The authors reckon that the 48,000 residents of the two neighbourhoods buyperhaps 1,400 guns a year, compared with at least 200,000 *e purchases.Underground brokers sell guns for $150-350, a *rk-up of perhaps 200% over thelegal price. They also de*nd a fee of $30-50 for orchestrating the deal. Eventhen, 30-40% of the transactions fall through because the seller cannot securea gun, gets cold feet or cannot agree on a location for the deal.

Buyers alsofind it hard to verify the quality of the merchandise. They often know littleabout the weapons they covet. "Tony", who owns a .38 calibre handgun,learnt how to use his weapon by fiddling with it. He even put a stone in it."Did it fire?" Mr Venkatesh asked. "I’m not sure. I think it did,"Tony said.

Fortunatelyfor Tony and his peers, their rivals and the victims of crime cannot tell iftheir guns work any better than they can. Often, showing the "bulge"is enough to gain the respect of rival gangs. In robberies brandishing theweapon will usually do. Storekeepers do not wait for proof that it works.

Markets canovercome thinness, the paper says; they can also overcome illegality. But theycannot overcome both. A thin *rket must rely on advertising or a centralisedexchange: eBay, for example, has dedicated pages *tching sellers of imitationpearl pins or Annette Funicello bears to the few, scattered buyers that can befound. But such solutions are too cumbersome and conspicuous for an underground*rket. The drugs *rket, by contrast, slips through the law’s fingers because of the naturaldensity of drug transactions. Dealers can always find customers on theirdoorstep, and buyers can reassure themselves about suppliers through repeatedcustom. There are no fixed and for*l institutions that the police could easilythrottle.

Indeed, theauthors argue that the gun *rket *y be threadbare partly because the drug*rket is so plump. Gang-leaders are wary of gun-dealing because the extrapolice scrutiny that guns attract would jeopardise their earnings from coke anddope. Even Chicago’s gang-leaders have to worry about the effect of crime on commerce.

1. Some of the gun transactins are unsuccessful *inly because_____.

[A] it is notprofitable as the underground price of gun far exceeds legal price

[B] Chicagohas surprisingly tough restrictions on the ownership and business of guns

[C] thedealers are unable to guarntee whether the deal is really going to happen or not

[D] it ishard to testify the quality of the guns in actual situations

2.Comparedwith the gun *rket, the drug *rket can be "fat" *inlybecause_____.

[A] it hardlyattracts the police’s attention due to the flexibility of the business

[B] the drugdealings are taking place in higher frequency

[C] there areno fixed and for*l spots for drug dealing

[D] drug isaffordable to a larger number of people

3. The word"cumbersome" (Line 4, Pargraph 5) most probably means_____.

[A]transparent

[B] troubling

[C] horrible

[D] sutpid

4. The reasonwhy the authors argue that the gun *rket *y be threadbare partly because thedrug *rket is so plump is _____.

[A] that thedrug transaction is more prefitable thatn gun-dealing.

[B] that thepolice are more dedicated to the gun-dealing than to the drug-dealing.

[C] that thegang-leaders are suppressing the gun-dealing in order to *intain their profitfrom drug

[D] that thegang-leaders are worried about the effect of crime on commerce.

5. Towardsthe future of gun-dealing, the author’s attitude is _____.

[A]pessimistic

[B]optimistic

[C] desperate

[D] sorrowful

文章剖析:

这篇文章首要介绍了现在美国枪支黑市的状况。第一段由美国人将枪杀案多的原因归罪于枪支比较容易取得这一个观点引出一个Sudhir经调查后的驳论;第二段讲述强制黑市交易量状况;第三段、第四段讲述*支的人的状况;第五段、第六段与毒品交易比较,得出现在枪支交易惨淡的另一方面原因。

词汇注释:

*rk-up n. (价格中)标高的金额; 涨价幅度

orchestrate v. 使...协调地结合在一起

fall throught v. 失败

cold feet v. 临阵畏缩

covet v. 觊觎,垂涎

calibre n. 口径

bulge n. 突起

brandish v. 挥舞

cubersome adj. 讨厌的, 麻烦的, 笨重的

throttle v. 压制,扼杀来源:考试大

threadbare adj. 破旧的,磨薄的

denizen n. 居民

难句突破:

(1) Fortunately for Tony and his peers, their rivals andthe victims of crime cannot tell if their guns work any better than they can.

[主体句式] Their rivals and the victims cannot tell...

[结构分析] 这是一个简单句,前面的介词短语做句子的状语, any better than they can后面省略了tell,亦是做句子的状语。

[句子译文]幸运的是,关于托尼还包含与他一样的人,他们的敌人还包含那些受害人也比他们强不了多少,并不知道他们的枪能不能用。

(2) A thin *rket must rely on advertising or acentralised exchange: eBay, for example, has dedicated pages *tching sellersof imitation pearl pins or Annette Funicello bears to the few, scattered buyersthat can be found.

[主体句式] A thin *rket must rely on...: eBay has dedicated...

[结构分析]这是一个简单句,后面用来解释整个句子的从句中,*tching...组成的此时分词短语做前面pages的定语,而后面有一个that引导的定语从句修饰buyers。

[句子译文] 一个狭窄的市场要依赖于广告或是统一的交换。例如易趣专门设出几页让那些卖假珍珠针饰的商家或Annette Funicello熊的商家与所能找到的极少的、分布在各地的买家进行配对。

题目分析:

1.Some of the gun transactins are unsuccessful *inly because_____.1.有一部分枪支交易未能成功首要是因为_____。

[A] it is not profitable as the underground price of gun far exceedslegal price[A] 枪支黑市价格远远高过合法枪支的价格

[B] Chicago has surprisingly tough restrictions on the ownership andbusiness of guns[B] 芝加哥对合法*有严格的限制

[C] the dealers are unable to guarantee whether the deal is reallygoing to happen or not[C] 卖家不能保证交易是否能够发生

[D] it is hard to testify the quality of the guns in actualsituations[D] 很难在实际情景下证实所销*的质量

[答案]C

[难度系数] ☆☆☆

[分析] 细节题。文章第二段提到,30%到40%的交易很后失败是因为卖家或是没有拿到枪支,

或临阵脱逃,或没有就交易地点达成一致。因而,交易失败的首要原因是卖家不能保证交易,

答案C符合题意。A选项在该段中有所涉及,可却不是交易不成功的直接原因。B与选项无关,

而D则涉及到了第三段,且所谈及的是枪支的质量疑问,而不是交易是否成功的疑问。考试大收集整理

2.Compared with the gun *rket, the drug *rket can be"fat" *inly because_____.2.与枪支市场相比,毒品市场比较兴旺是因为_____。

[A] it hardly attracts the police’s attention due tothe flexibility of the business[A] 毒品交易特别灵活,因而很难吸引警察的注意力

[B] the drug dealings are taking place in higher frequency[B] 毒品交易更加频繁

[C] there are no fixed and for*l spots for drug dealing[C] 毒品交易没有固定、正式的场所

[D] drug is affordable to a larger number of people[D] 关于许多人来讲,他们都能够买得起毒品

[答案]B

[难度系数] ☆☆☆☆

[分析] 细节题。文章第五段提到枪支交易因为其复杂性很难改变其惨淡的现状,而相反地,毒品交易因为其本身density of drug transactions(毒品交易密度)的原因能够逃避法律,接着下面就详细作了解释,例如交易很容易达成,并且 其交易地点不固定,警察不能轻易压制。并且 首要原因是因为其交易量本身比较大,因而B为正确选项,其中选项中的frequency能够视为density的统一词。A与C选项全是导致了毒品交易频繁的原因,可是B选项却是题干的直接原因。D选项在原文中没有依据。

3. The word "cumbersome" (Line 4, Pargraph 5) mostprobably means_____.3."cumbersome"(第五段第四行)很有有可能的意思是_____。

[A] transparent[A] 透明的

[B] troubling[B] 麻烦的

[C] horrible[C] 恐怖的

[D] stupid[D] 愚笨的

[答案]B

[难度系数] ☆☆☆

[分析]猜词题。该词所在的句子意思是"可是,关于一个地下市场来讲,这一个样子的解决办法又麻烦又显眼"。前文中提到"一个狭窄的市场要依赖于广告或是统一的交易。例如易趣专门设出几页让那些卖假珍珠针饰的商家或Annette Funicello熊的商家与所能找到的极少的、分布在各地的买家进行配对",显然这是很麻烦的。考生能够将四个选项分别代入原文,其余三个选项都不能符合题意。答案为B。

4. The reason why the authors argue that the gun *rket *y bethreadbare partly because the drug *rket is so plump is _____.4.研究者认为枪支市场惨淡部分是因为毒品市场比较兴旺,这是因为_____。

[A] the drug transaction is more prefitable that gun-dealing.[A] 毒品交易要比枪支交易利润更大。考试大收集整理

[B] the police are more dedicated to the gun-dealing than to thedrug-dealing.[B] 警察在枪支交易方面投入的精力比毒品交易多。

[C] the gang-leaders are suppressing the gun-dealing in order toprotect their profit from drug[C]匪徒头子压制枪支交易以保证从毒品中能够谋取的

利润。

[D] the gang-leaders are worried about the effect of crime oncommerce.[D] 匪徒头子担心商业犯罪的作用。

[答案]C

[难度系数] ☆

[分析]推理题。文章很后一段指出,研究者认为枪支市场惨淡的部分原因在于毒品市场交易的兴旺,接着下面就详细作了解释。匪徒头子关于枪支交易特别警觉,因为他们害怕枪支会使得警察增加调查,这一个样子就会危及其毒品交易的收入。那么能够看出,研究者这一个样子认为是看到不法分子的这样的举措,因而,答案C很为符合题意。

5. Towards the future of gun-dealing, the author’s attitudeis _____.5.作者关于枪支交易未来的态度是_____。

[A] pessimistic[A] 悲观的

[B] optimistic[B] 乐观的

[C] desperate[C] 绝望的

[D] sorrowful[D] 悲伤的

[答案]A

[难度系数] ☆☆☆

[分析]态度题。这篇文章首要分析了现在美国枪支交易的状况,因为种种原因处于比较惨淡的状态,而从作者分析来看,关于未来的状况也不是很看好,尤其与毒品交易相比较。因而,作者对其未来持悲观态度。因而正确答案为A选项。C与D选项的表述语气过于强烈,不符合原文的含义。

参考译文:

当美国还因此外一则枪杀案,12月5日内部达斯加州一家商场的枪击案余悸未消时,一点都不能责怪他们认为原因是枪支太容易得到了。可是在很新的《经济期刊》上发表的一篇文章认为至少非法枪支需求并没有人们想象得那么容易就被满足了。Sudhir Venkatesh现在在哥伦比亚大学供职,他与132名歹徒、77名*、116名拥有枪支的年轻人、23名枪支经销商乃至许多其余在芝加哥大林荫大道及华盛顿公园附近的居民交谈过,他并未发现有多少满意的顾客。

芝加哥在合法*方面有严格的固定,即便如此,黑市或者是异常惨淡,相对而言几乎没有多少买的人与卖的人被吸引到这里。研究者承认在这两个区48000个居民中间每一年只销售1400支枪,而购买可卡因的却有至少20万。地下代理人销*的价格为150美元到350美元,这要比合法价格高出200%。并且 ,他们还要多要30到50美元的协调费用。即便如此,30%到40%的交易或者是流产了,因为销售者或是没能拿到枪,或是临阵畏缩,或是不能就交易地点达成一致。

*的人发现要证实本人货物的质量也比较困难。他们对本人想要的枪支的状况知之甚少。"托尼"有一把口径为38的枪,他只能是本人把玩才能弄清楚怎么使用。他甚至还把一颗石头放在里面。"它能开火吗? " Venkatesh问他。"我不知道。我像应当是的。"托尼回答说。

幸运的是,关于托尼还包含与他一样的人,他们的敌人还包含那些受害人也比他们强不了多少,并不知道他们的枪能不能用。通常地,只要露出"凸起"的部分就能够让那些敌对的歹徒尊重,在抢劫中只要挥舞一下武器就够了。店主不会等着证明看能不能有效果。

文章提到,市场能够克服经营惨淡, 也能够克服非法疑问。可是不能同一时间克服两个疑问。一个狭窄的市场要依赖于广告或是统一的交易。例如易趣专门设出几页让那些卖假珍珠针饰的商家或 Annette Funicello熊的商家与所能找到的极少的、分布在各地的买家进行配对。可是,关于一个地下市场来讲,这一个样子的解决办法又麻烦又显眼。而毒品市场能够钻法律的空子,因为毒品交易的自然频繁程度。卖主在他们门口就能找到顾客,而买家经过老主顾也能相信供应商。并且 因为没有固定、正式的地方,警察要扼杀起来也比较困难。

实际上,研究者认为枪支市场这一个样子惨淡部分原因就在于毒品市场过于兴旺。匪徒头子对枪支交易十分警惕,因为枪支引起警察额外的审查会危及他们从毒品上取得的收入。甚至芝加哥的匪徒头子也得担忧*的影响。

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