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GMAT语法机经四

来源:网络 2020-08-01 18:38:10

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3. 语法的话我觉得大家都说实战是考语义的 可是我考的题目好多都是平行。。。各种平行 或者平行套平行~~ 当然平行的过程中也是要看语义的 就是看谁应该是和谁平行的~~y

By念儿酱

4. 语法考平行结构,主谓一致 ,and but 这类的平行

By自在路上

以下为Rinka自己整理的的Prep 关于平行的知识点以及例题,如有疏漏,还请海涵指正,谢!

平行PARALLELISM

在GMAT 考试中,有一类典型的句子结构错误是从句内容在语法上与主句并列,所以在看到句中的连词and 或or 时,要注意逻辑上的并列对象与语法上的并列对象是否一致。

(注意这里的题号格式,下同方便大家回归语法笔记查找)

Prep.07.test.1.164.automobile manufacturer has announced plans to increase the average fuel efficiency of its sport utility vehicles by 25 percent over the next five years, amounting to roughly five miles per gallon, and representing the first significant change in the fuel efficiency of any class of passenger vehicle in almost two decades.

(A) 现在分词结构在本句中修饰对象不清楚,and前面不应该有逗号,加了逗号使得and representing没有语法上的平行对象。

In laboratory rats, a low dose of aspirin usually suffices to block production of thromboxane, a substance that promotes blood clotting, but does not seriously interfere with the production of prostacyclin, which prevents clotting.

but does跳过同位语和suffices并列共同作为a low dose of aspirin的谓语动词

07.2.45.they denounce big government--they say that government is doing too much and has become too powerful--but supporting at the same time

but连接对象不平行,they denounce but supporting

07.2.158.Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

本题的秒杀方法:只有A选项but前后才是平行对称的,S.V.O+介词短语做时间状语,but S.V.O.+介词短语做时间状语。如此平行的结构,应该在第一时间对A建立好感。其次再用平行结构确认选项的排除。

agree that…but that…,宾语从句的平行that不能省,使句子更加清晰。

97.Industrialization and modern methods of insect control have improved the standard of living around the globe while at the same time introducing some 100,000 dangerous chemical pollutants that have gone virtually unregulated since they were developed more than 50 years ago.

(D) but introducing不能和have improved构成并列

but连词,如果连接句子,若连词连接的句子不一定主语相同,省略时可能不符合逻辑。补主语

07.2.42.During the same period in which the Maya were developing a hieroglyphic system of writing, the Aztec people also developed a written language, but it was not as highly sophisticated as that of the Maya and was more pictographic in nature.

(A)but it was not as highly sophisticated as that of the Maya and was

(D) not as highly sophisticated as that of the Maya, however, being

(E) not as highly sophisticated as the Maya´s however, it was

(A) 正确,it与that都指代written language。

(D) 句尾的分词结构being…有作定语修饰Maya的歧义,如果being…与not as… as…并列修饰language,那么这两个修饰语之间需要连词,而however是副词,无法连接句子(however作连词时,意思是“尽管”,表示让步而非转折)。

(E) 逗号应该在however的前面,as… as…在两个句子中间,在语法上修饰对象有歧义。

Although energy prices have tripled in the United States over the last two years, research indicates few people to have significantly reduced the amount of driving they do, nor are they making fuel efficiency a priority when shopping for cars.

E. that few people have significantly reduced the amount of driving they do or made

E correct;made前省略了have,have reduced和have made平行,也即两个平行的过去分词可以共享同一个助动词have。

两个句子并列,第一个句子含有be动词或者become,第二个句子中的be动词或者become必须省略

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina´s sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and resembling a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

(C) 正确, animal found…and resembling两个分词修饰animal构成平行结构

正确选项C中两个分词之所以一个用-ed形式,一个用-ing形式是因为found表示了被动态:animal is

found in the Philippines, 而resembling表示的主动语态:such animal resembles a hummingbird.(与

OG10-210题用法相同,可参考OG解释)

注意以下两个句子的区别:

1. Intar has moved away from the Spanish classics and now draws on the works of contemporary Hispanic authors.

2. Intar has moved away from the Spanish classics, and now it draws on the works of

contemporary Hispanic authors.

第一个句子中and前没有逗号,因此and连接的两个并列句中第二个并列结构应该省略重复的主语. 而第二句子中and前有逗号,因此and连接两个独立的句子,每个句子都需要自己的主谓宾,因此第二个句子中的it不能省略.

有and出现的时候,一定要警惕是不是会有平行结构的考点.读选项时,重点读and连接的对象,跳过修饰语等成分,如果and连接对象不平行,则可以直接排除该选项,节省时间

sth is sth是一种平行结构,其中sth和sth一定要能够对应,平行

Aim, goal, intention, objective, function, way, method, purpose + be + to do

the first…to do something:“数词+不定式”,惯用法

当然最常用的还是method of doing/for doing,优于 the method to:

"a method of protecting would be more idiomatic than a method to protect" 这是OG10-39解释中的一句话. 但是method的内容则可以用不定式表示:the method/way is to do…

07.2.85.one goal of semiconductor research is to develop a silicon chip

07.1.196. There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

A. the method与the forming不对等主系表要N1=N2

A. D. Correct;本题主考平行;several ways可以与there be搭配;A method is to do X and to do Y常见搭配;and后面加上逗号的表达并不常见,从本题可见GMAT接受这样的用法(prep1-247也出现类似用法)

07.1.68.The best way to extract the flavor from saffron threads is to soak them in liquid after pounding them with a mortar and pestle. The best way to… is to…

sth is sth的平行,对应在实战中不容易看得出来,平时训练的时候看到be动词,也要警惕,是否会考到平行,对应.举OG10th 84题为例

OG84. One legacy of Madison Avenue´s recent campaign to appeal to people fifty years old and over is the realization that as a person ages. their concerns change as well.

(A) the realization that as a person ages, their

(B) the realization that as people age, their

(C) to realize that when a person ages, his or her

(D) to realize that when people age, their

(E) realizing that as people age, their

其中C,D,E 选项均不满足sth is sth 的平行对应. one legacy 是名词,因此和它对应的也应该是名词,而C,D,E 分别是to do 结构和动名词结构,不能和名词结构平行,因此排除C,D,E 选项,然后根据指代一致,排除A,正确答案为B

sth is sth

07.1.195.Like the grassy fields and old pastures that the upland sandpiper needs for feeding and nesting when it returns in May after wintering in the Argentine Pampas, the sandpipers vanishing in the northeastern United States is a result of residential and industrial development and of changes in farming practices.

(A) the sandpipers vanishing的中心词是sandipipers不是一个result,vanishing只是修饰语,且sandipipers与后面的is主谓不一致 主系表要N1=N2

in addition to A, B …,A和B不一定是同一类事物 129.

The largest trade-book publisher in the United States has announced the creation of a new digital imprint division, under which it will publish about 20 purely digital works to be sold online as either electronic books or downloadable copies that can be printed upon purchase.

(E) works, and it will sell them online either as electronic books or

(E) “, and it will”这里的逗号与and要连接两个完整的句子并列,即与主句publisher has announced…并列,无法与定语从句中的will publish并列,除非去掉逗号。时态不并列

07.1.50. With no natural predators and expanses of green suburban neighborhoods that allow no hunting, wildlife officials estimate the New Jersey deer population to have grown to exceed 175,000.

(D) Without natural predators and no hunting allowed in expanses of green suburban

neighborhoods, New Jersey has a deer population that wildlife officials estimate to have

(A) officials是句子主语,使句首的with结构修饰对象错误;with no A and B, B…的表达有歧义,无法确定是否no也修饰B。

(D) New Jersey是句子主语,使句首的with结构修饰对象错误;without A and no B..的表达有歧义,without与no重复,且修饰对象不清楚。

07.1.213.Shoppers in sporting goods stores, unlike in department stores, do very little impulse shopping, not buying a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball, but they leave with a basketball only

C those in department stores, do very little impulse shopping, do not buy a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball, but leave with only a basketball

do very little impules shopping和do not buy a pair of skis一个是概括,一个是细化,功能不同无法平行,而且but不能连接三个并列成分,只能连接两个,所以即便不考虑逻辑上的层次,do not buy之前也要加上and

D those in department stores, do very little impulse shopping; someone who comes in for a basketball will leave with a basketball only and not buy a pair of skis and a boomerang as well

Correct;两个不同层次却有联系的句子用semicolon连接是最合适的。And…as well在此并不重复, as well修饰的是and后面的谓语动词buy(类似见prep 2-166补充说明中对but instead的说明);Only做adj.修饰basketball

As well as表示同样、也等意思,应为解释为:in addition to something or someone else。它与and是有区别的,不能简单的认为 as well as等于and:

a) 意思上:A and B结构中,A与B平行,属于同一层次;而A, as well as B这一结构中,B是对A的补充,并非同一层次

b) 谓语动词:以A and B作主语的句子,主语包含了含义平行的同一层次的A和B两者,所以谓语为复数;而以A, as well as B做主语的句子,主语的核心只有A,B是顺带提一下的补充句意性质的成分,因此谓语的人称和数由A的人称和数决定

c) 多个名词平行,同时使用到and和as well as的结构,我们可以使用:A, B, and C, as well as D。其中,ABC是同一个层次的事物,它们之间是同一层次的平行关系,D是对ABC的一个补充,严格上来说和ABC不属于同一个层次。同理,(both) A and B, as well as C 也是正确的,AB属于同层次的事物,C是对AB的一个补充。

d) 如果出现 be vulnerable to A, B, as well as C 这种句型,我们认为是错误的。因为as well as和and是有区别的,as well as不能代替and。上述句型,如果ABC属于同一层次,则应改为A, B, and C. 如果AB同层次,C是补充说明类的事物,则应该改为A and B, as well as C

基本句型:A did one thing, as well as doing another thing. 这种句型属于as well as 的一种使用方法,朗文给出的例句为:The organization gives help and support to people in need,as well as raising money for local charities.

基本句型:A as well as B 204.The nineteenth-century chemist Humphry Davy presented the results of his early experiments in his “Essay on Heat and Light,” a critique of all chemistry since Robert Boyle as well as a vision of a new chemistry that Davy hoped to found. correct

07.2.153.For centuries, people on sea voyages washed their clothes by placing the dirty laundry in a strong cloth bag, then toss it overboard, and let the ship drag the bag for hours.

A. then多余,不应该在第二个并列成分中出现。

多个带to的结构平行时,可以考虑两种用法:要么全部都带to,要么只有第一个有to、后面的都不带。比如本题中,可以是be vulnerable to A, B and C,也可以是be vulnerable to A, to B, and to C. 其他方式的不正确。be vulnerable to A, as well as to B 要求句子结构平行,为保持平行,不省略介词

to design and build 和 to design and to build 都是正确的平行结构

A pair of architects in Britain, who say that giant arches, bridges, and walls made of artificial bone could be easier to design and build than conventional structures 正确

名词性的名词结构,和动词性的名词结构(动名词等)是有区别的。在判断某一平行结构是否正确时,这两种结构虽然从语法层次都属于名词结构,但是在含义层次一个表名词,另一个表动作,是不同的概念,不可以平行。比如此题中,discovery可以和documentation平行,都是名词;discovering和documenting都是动名词,词性是名词,但是表动作含义,也可以平行;但是discovery和documenting之间不能平行,因为含义和性质不相同。

07.1.182.The organic food industry has organized a successful grassroots campaign—using Web sites, public meetings, and also mass mailings—that have convinced the Department of Agriculture to change the proposed federal regulations for organically grown food.

A. and also在列举的时候多余,不过在also有时候是作为强调而且不用在列举中不一定多余(and also还有一种情况下是redundant的:both X and also Y)

如果你一眼看出这个句子考not only,but also于是开始找答案,恭喜你,又上当了。做题的时候要弄清楚句子的意思是递进还是转折,如果是递进not only...but also 没问题,如果是转折的话,就要考虑一下是否是GMAC的陷阱了, but/but also才是表示转折的意思.

not only…but also

重新摘录一下前面提到过的用法:

首先Not only…..but (also)表示的关系是递进, 其中also可以省略……….But/but also表示的是转折.

not only ...but also表示并列,不能表示转折,不要有先入为主的感觉认为not only...but also必须一起出现。单独出现but also是可能的。

1) 在正常语序中: not only … but also 应连接两个相对称的并列成分。

在正常语序中: 短语本身不可以加入其它成份,比如变成:not only...but it also...是错误的(因为破坏了平衡)。

2) not only … but also 连接两个主语时,谓语动词要和与其最近的主语保持人称和数的一致。

3) not only … but also 不能用在否定句中。

4) not only … but also 连接两个分句,并且 not only 位于句首时,第一个分句中的主语和谓语要部分倒装。

Zeldaw的帖子摘录如下:

关于not only...but also...----从GWD8-20总结出的

看了GWD8-20, 以前的NN讨论的的太好了,可是藏的太深,很多人都看不见, 后来又看了好些的帖子,,收益良多.所以我把大家观点总结一下,

首先Not only…..but (also)表示的关系是递进, 其中also可以省略

But/but also表示的是转折. 在but also中, ring_cheng认为also不属于重复, 所以应当保留.该观点尚未证实.

not only ...but also表示并列,不能表示转折,不要有先入为主的感觉认为not only...but also必须一起出现。单独出现but also是可能的,此时表示的是转折,参见大全74

All-terrain vehicles have allowed vacationers to reach many previously inaccessible areas, but they have also been blamed for causing hundreds of deaths, injury to thousands, and seriously damaging the nation’s recreational areas.

(A) deaths, injury to thousands, and seriously damaging

(B) deaths and injuring thousands, and serious damage to

(C) deaths, thousands who are injured, as well as seriously damaging

(D) deaths and thousands of injuries, as well as doing serious damage to (D)

(E) deaths, thousands are injured, and they do serious damage to

关于not only…but also.. 的用法,我根据前人的发言并结合GMAT的思路挑出了这几条:

1.在正常语序中: not only … but also 应连接两个相对称的并列成分。例如:

Not only Mr Lin but also his son joined the Party two years ago. (连接两个主语)

I not only play tennis but also practise shooting. (连接两个谓语动词)

He plays not only the piano but also the violin. (连接两个宾语)

在正常语序中: 短语本身不可以加入其它成份,比如变成:not only...but it also...是错误的(因为破坏了平衡)。

如大全中:

07.1.125.The winds that howl across the Great Plains not only blow away valuable topsoil, thereby reducing the potential crop yield of a tract of land, and also damage or destroy young plants.

(A) and also damage or destroy

(B) as well as damaging or destroying

(C) but they also cause damage or destroy

(D) but also damage or destroy(D)

(E) but also causing damage or destroying

Choice D, the best answer, correctly employs the correlative construction not only x but also y, where x and y are grammatically parallel and where both x and y (damage and destroy) apply to young plants. Choices A, (not only... and also), B (not only... as well as), and C (not only... but they also) violate the not only... but also paradigm. Moreover, B contains terms (blow... damaging) that are not parallel. In C and E, damage is used not as a verb with young plants as its direct object but as a noun receiving the action of cause; consequently, these choices fail to state explicitly that the damage is done to young plants. E also violates parallelism (not only blow... but also causing)

2. not only … but also 连接两个主语时,谓语动词要和与其最近的主语保持人称和数的一致。例如:

Not only the students but also the teacher was against the plan. / Not only the teacher but also the students were against the plan.

3. not only … but also 不能用在否定句中。例如:

误: They don´t fear not only hardship but also death.

正: They fear neither hardship nor death.

正: They don´t fear either hardship or death.

4. not only … but also 连接两个分句,并且 not only 位于句首时,第一个分句中的主语和谓语要部分倒装。例如:

Not only does the sun give us light, but also it gives us heat.

Not only did he speak English correctly, but he also speaks it fluently.

《新编英语语法》薄冰P633:Not only does he compose music, but he also plays./ Not only does he have to type out the answer on a computer, but he also gets the computer to translate it into sounds.

《新编英语语法》章振邦1005:She was not only compelled to stay at home, but she was also forbidden to see her friends

英语语法大全上的例句是: Not only did they break into his office and steal his books, but they also tore up his manuscripts. 所以我个人认为在倒装的情况下,but also是可以被主语拆开的.

这里附上ring_cheng的观点:倒装时可以在短语中插入某类成分,如:not only did sb do sth, but sb also did sth (之所以前后都加入主语,不是为了连接主语,而是为了句子的对仗工整而补足主语,连接的其实是主语的两个不同的谓语动作。又因为not only在句首已经倒装过了,所以but also用正常语序即可。依然满足句子平衡的要求).如大全354中but also被主语+助动词拆开:

354.In 1978 a national study found that not only had many contractors licensed by a self-policing private guild failed to pass qualifying exams, they in addition falsified their references.

A. they in addition falsified their references

B. they had their references falsified in addition

C. but they had also falsified their references

D. they had also falsified their references(C)

E. but their references were falsified as well

not only…but also…的变体总结 -- aeoluseros

1. not only … but also …并不总是这么对称、完整地出现地,以下几种变体也为GMAT所接受:

(1) not only … but …

(2) not only … also…

(3) not only … , … as well (GMAT认可度待定)

Evidence:

OG11-52. The winds that howl across the Great Plains not only blow away valuable topsoil, thereby reducing the potential crop yield of a tract of land, and also damage or destroy young plants.

(A) and also damage or destroy

(B) as well as damaging or destroying

(C) but they also cause damage or destroy

(D) but also damage or destroy

(E) but also causing damage or destroying

key: D 其中OG对A选项的解释为:And also is not the correct idiom; not only is followed by but also or also. ? 证实GMAT官方认可not only…also…的用法。

prep 1-147 By pressing a tiny amount of nitrogen between two diamonds to a pressure of 25 million pounds per square inch, scientists were able not only to transform the gas into a solid but to create a semiconductor similar to silicon. ? 正式GMAT官方认可not only…but…的用法。

**对各大字典的搜索:

(1) LONGMAN,not:

not only ... (but) also ... --> 可惜没有针对性例句.

* Shakespeare was not only a writer but also an actor.

not only do/will/can etc

*Not only do the nurses want a pay increase, they want reduced hours as well.

? not only … as well …

(2) 牛津字典,not:

not only...(but) also (used to emphasize the addition of sb/sth 用以强调递进关系的某人[某事物]):

* Not only the grandparents were there but also the aunts, uncles and cousins.

* He not only writes his own plays, he also acts in them.

(3) AHD,not:

当第二部分只是强调第一部分时,在not only 结构里 also 通常省略。

He not only wanted the diamond but wanted it desperately.

(4) Cambridge,not only:

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/only_4#only_4__3

not only ... (but) also used to say that two related things are true or happened, especially when this is surprising or shockingNot only did he turn up late, he also forgot his books.

If this project fails it will affect not only our department, but also the whole organization.

(5) 另外在LONGMAN里查only,有这么一条:not only ... but (also) at not.

2. 注意除了not verb...but verb...之外,are...but are...也是一种平行,即not在平行之外.

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

key:D … many biological traits are not the products…, but are simply random…

注意除了not verb...but verb...之外,are...but are...也是一种平行,即not在平行之外.

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

key:D … many biological traits are not the products…, but are simply random…

句子完整结构 (结合前面提到的run-on)

1) S+V1+O1 and V2+O2.是很常见的结构. and之后的主语是S, 可是被省了.

2) S+V1+O1, and pronoun(指代S)+V2+O2. 也是很常见的结构.

一般在and之后用pronoun指代S作主语是因为and跟S的距离太远.

3) S+V1+O1 and pronoun(指代S)+V2+O2. 被OG10列为run-on sentence,但如果这两个主谓宾的并列是同在一个分句里(而这个分句又与句子的其他成分并列),则这样的结构也是允许的。

4) 对于S+V1+O1, and V2+O2.结构,and前并不经常补出逗号,通常and前补出逗号是因为前面是插入语一定需要逗号,或者是为了让句子结构更为清晰,比如前面是定语从句,防止第二个谓语动词V2与定语从句中的动词并列;又比如本题的C选项加了逗号,the yellow jacket’s stinger is comparatively smooth, and can therefore be pulled out and used:used和pulled自己独自成为平行,两者组成的小团体又和前面的is平行,如果都连着写,那么会给读者一个is和used平行的印象(虽然我们并不一定会那么读,但是加了逗号更为清晰了)。

**: 要提醒的一点是,GMAT中逗号不会作为判断一个选项正确与否的唯一考点。

Run-on sentence.

aeoluseros关于run-on sentence知识点的补充说明:

找过很多解释,包括一些语法书(也包括老外的)、百度,始终觉得措辞上不合适,不过在一本手册上终于看到了满意的解释:

run-on sentence 连写句:

连写句指错误地将两个独立分句合写在一个句子里面没有正确地用标点分离。

连写句有两种类型:

溶合句(fused sentence):根本不使用标点把两个独立分句合写在一个句子里

逗号错误(comma splice):使用逗号但没有并列连词将两个独立分句写在一个句子里。

BTW: 所谓的独立分句即"主句",其对应的是"从句",都属于"分句"。

而run-on sentence的重点在于其改正方法:

1) 分为两个句子

2) 用一个逗号加上and, but, or或者其他并列连词

3) 两个句子中间使用分号

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